Introduction to Spellbreaking
Instructor: Assistant Prof. Angrin Strifetamer
Mail: Mage Quarter PO Box #272
Prerequisites: PCMB 100, PCMB 150, PCBM 175 (Any versatile weapon), ARC 101
Corequisites: PCMB 250, ARC 267
Current Safety Precautions:
Please do not hesitate to meet with me if needed after classes or during my office hours. I encourage visits! Not only will it help me familiarize myself with each of you, but it is free time for you to ask questions pertaining to the class or to speak on anything else that may be of interest to you. I assure you, you are not being a ‘bother’ by visiting.
Magic has permeated my people's blood ever since my ancestors sailed across the sea to found Quel'thalas. It is a gift to be able to wield such awesome forces. One can manifest arcane storms with a channeled ritual, bridge the gaps in space with a word, and even summon great balls of fire at will. Those especially skilled would become Magisters and wield great power both in the arcane and in political office. As with sentient nature, when creatures acquire great power, some will inevitably abuse it.
Elven Spellbreakers were born out of necessity to combat those who would use their gift of magic for their own ends. They are trained mage-guards who specialize in combating magic through a combination of ancient arcane techniques combined with martial skill. These elite were chosen from the martial classes, mainly from soldiers and guardsmen. Each one was tasked with keeping order in a society where even the most infant of children was capable of at least some sort of arcane ability. Their burden was heavy but necessary.
Their art had been recently lost with Kael'thas' betrayal with the attack on the Isle of Quel'Danas. It wasn't until the Pandaria conflicts that their art had been directly ordered by Regent Lord Lor'themar Theron to undergo a revitalization. Today, their art has thrived in the tests of time.
In this class, we will be studying the style of Spellbreaking itself, the philosophy behind the art, the code of ethics that each mage-guard swore upon to uphold, and finally, its martial techniques.
This course is 50% lecture and 50% lab work. If you are not keen on working up a sweat as part of the practical lab work, then I advise you to reconsider this class. Spellbreaking is not effectively taught by burying one’s nose into a book, but through practical application, experimentation, and exercise.
Meet Your Instructor
My name is Angrin Strifetamer. I am Ren’dorei. I am one-hundred and ninety-five years old. I was born in Silvermoon City as the only child of a baker and brewer. I have just under a century’s worth of experience as a guardsman, being promoted to a Sergeant before eventually retiring. I was later chosen as a Spellbreaker and served as one for about thirty or so years. I have firsthand military experience when it comes to defending my city against rampaging Orcs and Amani Trolls and was a part of the Shattered Sun Offensive to take down Prince Kael’thas. More recently, I have been a neutral-aligned mercenary before leaving that life and being hired here at Stormwind University. Here, I teach Spellbreaking, Astromancy, and Mathematics. I have taught before in Silvermoon, hosting public planetary shows as well as martial exhibitions.
Students who complete this course successfully will be able to:
- Manipulate both their own and others’ internal mana pool.
- Finetune their senses to better detect magic in both its arcane and fel forms.
- Quickly assess a spellcaster’s intent and act accordingly.
- Use traditional martial weapons such as a sword or glaive to defend against spells.
- Use offensive techniques such as the Mana Spike to combat a Spellcaster.
- Disrupt and contort magical energies.
- Utilize Zones of Influence and establish Anti-Magic Zones.
- Utilize Magic-dampening enchantments, runes, and sigils.
- Uphold a code of ethics that comes with this ancient art.
- Writing utensil, inkwell, and parchment.
- Physical fitness.
- Adept skill in the arcane.
Lab work: We will have a total of five labs this semester spread out over the course of about 4 months. These are practical labs, specifically designed for you to step away from your desk and gain some real experience as to what we learn in lecture.
Exams: We will have four total exams, not including the final. The exams will be written and may feature a mixture of free-response, multiple choice, and essay-type questions.
Final Exam: The final will be cumulative and will be an exercise and practical application of what you have learned in the semester in a duel by a real, breathing mage, albeit the mage will not try to maim or kill you.
Being a small class, the opportunity for student participation is greater than that of general courses such as ARC101. I have no policy on in-class participation in lectures. Participation during lectures (e.g. Asking and answering questions) will not contribute positively nor negatively toward your grade. However, that being said, I highly advise you to participate and make the best use of both your time and gold.
The class dynamic shall be civil, respectful, inclusive, and supportive. There are no ‘dumb questions.’ The only dumb question is the question that goes unasked. I highly encourage you to ask questions. If you feel I am going too fast or slow, say so. If you want me to repeat something or elaborate on a topic, ask. It is my literal job to ensure you all learn to the best of your ability.
If you have any concerns or questions about classroom dynamics, please speak with me during my office hours, after class, or schedule a personal appointment.
Statement of Grading Approach:
I am of the philosophy that practice makes perfect. As such, this class will have mandatory homework and lab work. This is not because I am sadistic and like watching you all suffer under the piles of paperwork that must be finished, but it is because I want you all to get the most out of this class as possible and I want you to be the most prepared you can be when the time for exams come. What you may learn here may very well be the difference between life and death. However cliche the statement is, it is true.
Fifteen weeks to learn millennia of anti-magic technique will be difficult. I provide three extra credit assignments that one may turn in, but as the name implies, it is not required. We will have weekly homework assignments due on the Monday of each week. There will also be five labs designed to give you practical experience in Spellbreaking.
I will not ‘bump up’ your grade for any reason other than grading error in accordance with University policy. Any attempts made to bribe or otherwise persuade me to change your grade will be met with a referral to the Dean’s Office and the Disciplinary Committee.
- Homework: 150 points
- Quizzes: 150 points
- Lab work: 200 points
- Extra Credit: 75 points (Does not count against you)
- Exams: 300 points
- Final: 200 points
- Total: 1000 points
*No exams will be dropped. The lowest scoring homework assignment will be dropped.
Course Policies and Information for Students
- ATTENDANCE POLICY
Attendance is mandatory to pass. Spellbreaking as a concept and as a style requires devotion, practice, and constant guidance to master. Attendance will be taken via a sign-in sheet at the front desk of the classroom and will be available for the first twenty minutes of class. After the twenty minutes have passed, the attendance sheet will promptly be teleported away. Any student who arrives after this time will be considered late and officially absent for that day. As such, I will allow one free day where a student may miss class. Consider this your ‘insurance’ day. If you are sick, out of town, or just not quite having a very good day, this is your get-out-of-jail free card. After the ‘free day,’ you may have up to three days of absences until I must drop you from the course.
- PENALTIES FOR LATE WORK and REQUESTS FOR EXTENSIONS
I am fairly lenient on late homework. You will have a twenty-four (24) hour grace period in which I will accept any late homework after its due date for its full worth. After the grace period, I will take a 15% penalty off the homework for each consecutive day the assignment is late. If the assignment is more than three days late after the grace period, I will still grade the assignment and give you feedback, but I will not consider its points in your final grade. It is an effective zero. Turning in late lab work is not possible.
As a general rule, I do not allow for assignment extensions unless in the case of extenuating circumstances such as a death in the student’s immediate family, student injury, or observance of a religious holiday. If you are unable to turn in an assignment on time for a reason in the spirit of those listed above, please consult me as soon as possible.
- POLICIES ON MISSED EXAMS, MAKE-UP EXAMS OR QUIZZES
There will be no make-up exams or quizzes unless in the case of extenuating circumstances covered above! Requests for make-up exams or quizzes for reasons of ‘being on vacation’ or in the spirit of the aforementioned will be denied. To request for a make-up exam or quiz, visit me after class or during my office hours, or arrange for an appointment. Students should plan their schedules around important due dates. If you miss an exam, you will receive a zero for the exam. Exam dates are listed below in the ‘Preliminary Schedule of Topics, Readings, and Assignments’ section and students will be notified of any changes to the exam dates from announcements in class. If you miss a class, it falls on you to keep yourself up to date on any changes to the schedule.
- RACIAL RELATIONS POLICY
Stormwind University is an establishment that prides itself on the diversity of both its faculty and students. I am Ren’dorei myself. This policy is very personal even to me. I want to make it very clear that any kind of racist and/or harassing behavior will be met with severe consequences: Any student participating in foul language, hate speech, and/or bigotry stemming from racial or cultural differences will result in immediate ejection from the course and a referral to the Dean’s Office and Disciplinary Committee.
- ACADEMIC INTEGRITY POLICY:
Ethical behavior is paramount to the spirit of Spellbreaking. As such, any sort of cheating will be met with immediate ejection from the course with a grade of ‘F’ and a referral to the Dean’s Office and Disciplinary Committee. Cheating will result in your class experience being diluted and cheapened, undermining both your time and gold. I assure you, it is not worth it, however tempting it may appear. If you feel you have no choice but to cheat, please see me during my office hours or make an appointment so I may better advise and help you in your studies.
Plagiarism will be met with the punishments listed above. That being said, it is better to err on the side of caution. Please properly quote and cite any sources in written papers. Do not copy each other’s work unless I say it is explicitly allowed in a group lab, for example. If you are unsure if something is plagiarism, please consult me.
The instructor reserves the right to make modifications to this information throughout the semester.
Preliminary Schedule of Topics, Readings, and Assignments
Week 1 (August 16): Syllabus Reading & Class Introduction, A Brief Overview of Spellbreaking History and its Effects On Elven Culture
Week 2 (August 20): Spellbreaking Ethics, Armor, and Weapons. Syllabus Quiz due. Written Homework 1 (History and Culture) due Wednesday. Lab 0 Orientation Friday.
Week 3 (August 27): Magical Disruption Basics and Barriers, Telegraphing Spellcaster Intent Written Homework 2 (Ethics, Armor, and Weapons) due Monday. Lab 1 Wednesday (Disruption Basics and Barriers, Telegraphing Intent).
Week 4 (September 3): King’s Labor Day - No class Monday. Physical Takedowns, Light Sparring, Introduction to hybrid one handed/free hand guards. Exam 1 Review Wednesday and Friday. Written Homework 3 (Disruption Basics & Barriers, Telegraphing Intent) due Wednesday.
Week 5 (September 10): Exam 1 Monday - September 10. Mana burning and Internal Mana Manipulation. Written Homework 4 (Physical Takedowns, Glaive and Shield Guards) due Wednesday.
Week 6 (September 17): Fine Tuning the Five Senses, Illusion Detection, Medium Sparring. Written Homework 5 (Mana Burning and Mana Pool Manipulation) due Monday. Lab 2 Wednesday.
Week 7 (September 24): Resisting Mind Manipulation, Disrupting Cantrips, Mana Spike Offensive Techniques. Exam 2 Review Friday. Written Homework 6 (Five Senses, Illusion Detection) due Monday.
Week 8 (October 1): Exam 2 Monday- October 3. Counterspells, Restraints via Arcane, ‘Naked Glaive’ techniques. Written Homework 7 (Mind Manip. Resist, Cantrips, Mana Spike) due Wednesday.
Week 9 (Ocober 8): Fall Break - No class Monday. Total Spell Destruction, Globe of Invulnerability techniques. Written Homework 8 (Counterspells, Restraints, Naked Glaive) due Wednesday. Lab 3 Wednesday.
Week 10 (October 15): Repurposing Mana, Conjured Weapons. Exam 3 Review Friday. Written Homework 9 (Spell Destruction, Globe) due Monday.
Week 11 (October 22): Exam 3 Monday - October 22. Dampening Weapon Enchantments, Nullification Runes & Sigils. Written Homework 10 (Repurposing Mana, Conjured Weapons) due Wednesday.
Last edited by Angrin on 2018-05-11 6:48 pm; edited 11 times in total
(STB181 Syllabus Cont'd)
Week 12 (October 29): Dampening and Detection Wards, Heavy Sparring, Expanded Glaive and Shield techniques. Written Homework 11 (Damp. Weapon Enchnt., Nullification Runes & Sigils) due Monday. Lab 4 Wednesday.
Week 13 (November 5) Arcane Null Zone technique, Zones of Influence, Resisting Spell Effects. Written Homework 12 (Damp. and Det. Wards) due Monday.
Week 14 (November 12) Resisting Spell Effects Expanded, Resisting Curses, Anti-magic Aura. Exam 4 Review Friday. Written Homework 13 (Null Zone, Zones of Influence, Spell Effects) due Monday.
Week 15 (November 19) Exam 4 Monday - November 19. Overview of Everything. Lab 5 (Practice Mage Duel) Wednesday. Written Homework 14 (Spell Effect Expnd., Curses, Anti-magic Aura) due Friday.
Week 16 (November 26) Final Exam Review Week. Free sparring.
Finals Week! (December 3) Final Exam (Mage Duel) Monday - December 3. Location and Time TBA.
The Possibilities of Extraterrestrial Communicative Life Neighboring Azeroth Using the Drake Equation
Department of General Studies, Stormwind University
Abstract: The paper quantified the chances of meeting intelligent extraterrestrial life using the Drake Equation, originally proposed by Franc von Drake. The basic premise of the experiment was to use values extrapolated from Astronomical observational data such as the average rate of star formation in our galaxy.. These answers are not meant to be any concrete evidence, but they moreso spark the discussion of the possibility of intelligent communicative life that may one day find us or vice-versa. Estimates range from the extremely conservative .0048 civilizations to the extremely generous 100800 civilizations currently transmitting their presence in our galaxy.
Keywords: Drake Equation, extraterrestrial life, habitability, communicative civilizations
With our discovery of the Draenei, or rather, the Draenei discovering us, the possibility of intelligent life that can communicate with us has just now been a possibility the general public has considered. When one looks up into the stars, he would be hard-pressed to not ask himself if there are beings like him on all those distant dots.
With Mathematics, we’re able to make guesses, and when I say ‘guesses’ in this specific case, I most certainly mean guesses. There is very much uncertainty when it comes to the values one substitutes into the Drake Equation. The numbers are not concrete. What may be generous to one Astronomer may be too conservative for another. As a result, the answers we can arrive at often wildly vary when we compare them to one another.
Regardless, the question itself and the answers, however ungrounded they may seem, still offer some insight into the possibilities of neighboring communicative civilizations. If nothing else, the Drake Equation ignites the discussion. What about us? What are the chances of there being other communicative civilizations in Azeroth’s own galaxy?
Materials and Methods
I used the famous equation originally constructed by Franc von Drake:
- N - The number of detectable civilizations at this time.
- R - The rate of formation of suitable stars in Azeroth’s galaxy
- fp - The fraction of stars with orbiting planets
- np - The average number of habitable planets per star
- fl - The fraction of habitable planets where life emerges
- fi - The fraction of planets with life where intelligence evolves
- fc - The fraction of intelligent civilizations with interstellar communication
- L - The number of years an intelligent civilization remains detectable
According to my calculations where:
fi = .01
The number of communicative civilizations within Azeroth’s galaxy at this very moment is around 75.
Another calculation using more generous values was:
These values yield the result of an extremely generous 100799.99 communicative civilizations in our galaxy.
Ignoring the extremely high number of 100799.99 communicative civilization in our galaxy, where one may be pelted by radio waves should he choose to activate his appropriate Goblin or Gnomish device, 75 seems a reasonable number. There are dozens of other civilizations like Azeroth that can shoot off radio waves into the Great Dark Beyond.
My value for R corresponds with the range of stars formed in Azeroth’s galaxy, 5-20.
Fp is still very much an estimation and can be subject to more discussion. I went a tad bit more generous with my value, estimating sixty percent of those suitable stars had planets orbiting them.
Np is still an estimation, mainly because it depends on how we define, ‘habitable.’ Do we mean like Azeroth, a planet in its sun’s Goldilocks Zone, where there is flora, fauna, and liquid water? Or do we mean where only -some- sort of life is able to live such as Elementals and maybe even another form of life that does not need water at all? I chose the value of 1. So far in our solar system, Azeroth is the only planet to harbor intelligent life.
Fl is another wildcard. We have plenty of examples of life different from our own such as the Draenei, Ethereals, and Eredar. It’s difficult for us to say how easy or how hard molecules form to create something with sentience. Again, I went a bit generous with my value of .5, saying life emerges once per two habitable planets.
Fi is another unknown. Given that life evolves into sentience on that planet, what are the chances of that life developing in such a way that they eventually decipher the secrets of Physics to build a wheel or the capability to develop reading and writing? Here, I estimated an even lower value compared to Fl: .01.
Fc is even more ambiguous. Okay, intelligent life has sprouted on some arbitrary planet. They’re reading, writing, talking, and maybe have even discovered agriculture or fire. What are the chances now that this intelligent life will delve into Engineering to unlock the secrets of radio waves and wireless communication? Drake chose the value of .01: One out of every 100 intelligent civilizations would discover radio. I went a bit higher, choosing .25: One out of four.
L: Again, there is no real basis for this value. If we choose to use ourselves as an example, radio was only a recently-discovered phenomena in the grand scheme of the Universe. A conservative estimate would be perhaps fifty years. Drake thought 10,000 years was a good guess. I’m sticking by it.
The result was seventy-five civilizations are currently shooting off some form of communication into Space. Is this accurate? Probably not. All these values except for R are not grounded in any sort of concrete evidence, but they kick start the discussion of extraterrestrial life. Can there be others like us out there on those distant stars? What are they like? How is their technology? Their culture? How do they sustain themselves?
Seventy five communicative civilizations beaming into the Great Dark Beyond at this very moment is both amazing and frightening. Will they be like the Burning Legion? Or the Draenei? Will shaking their hand, assuming they have hands, be an act of peace or aggression? Do we have a plan in place in case things go awry?
I would like to thank my students for being the inspiration for this paper along with my fiance, Robert Belrond, and my daughter, Calarel Belrond, for keeping me going. I would like to thank the University as a whole for allowing me the opportunity to publish something like this in a professional setting.
von Drake, Franc. "The Drake Equation: A Sliver Of Possible Communicative Civilizations In The Great Dark Beyond." Azeroth Astronomer Monthly 43.17 6-12. Print.
Additional Insights to Angrin Strifetamer's Publication, The Possibilities of Extraterrestrial Communicative Life Neighboring Azeroth using the Drake Equation
In taking a cursory look through Angrin's investigative study in the theoretical, readers fall into the danger of being uninformed of the more recent developments regarding our out of the ordinary exposure to Argus and the Legion's technologies. While abhorrent in the crimes the Legion continues to commit, we have to recognize their ability to both find and inhabit both formerly inhabited and barren worlds as the current reigning power to our knowledge, with the Draenei of our current society being just the next one to traverse and find new worlds. We need to recognize their contributions to our understanding of how distant, but how numerable the worlds with inhabitants is in the Great Dark Beyond.
Champions of both factions were dispatched on our intermediary ship, The Vindicaar, to one of the Legion's strongest footholds on Argus but we also came across Legion portals that were dispatching demons to other worlds; for heroes on Argus the distance was nigh nothing, a supercharged portal riding the twisting nether like a leyline, to reach new worlds such as the icy world of Val, or the great floating island of Aurinor; we can even visit Bonich, a land of familiar fauna with life. Not to mention the less inhabitable but not impossibly so planets of Cen'gar, Naigtal, and Sangua. These distinct but somewhat familiar planets oddly enough bridge out somewhere in the Great Dark Beyond. Anyone with any questions about these planets should seek out our returning champion's for more information as our understanding of these regions is limited to testimonies at this time.
Goblin and Gnomish technologies can similarly breach the gaps between these great distances with their already established break and reassembly technology, but not without precise receiver end coordination. You couldn't send a signal out effectively from one to get a ping from the other without it expecting a signal. Unfortunately, while private communicators may be well on their way to solving our problems with effectively sending out a signal for receipt, currently our options are costly at best; the chances were great that the missle, "Light's Heart" that crashed into waters off Suramar could have missed.
In short, unless we are willing to explore the potentials of breaking down Legion technologies or at least their understanding of astrology and Great Dark navigation, this will continue to be theoretical number crunching with no end game.
AST 181 Week 4/15 Handout - Required Homework Reading
Asst. Prof. Angrin Strifetamer
The Speed of Light - It Isn’t Instant. Here’s How We Know.
Sky Full of Ghosts
Every star we see in the night sky is a sun as big and as bright as our own. Imagine how far you would have to move the sun to make it appear as faint as those distant stars. Light from stars travel very fast, faster than anything in fact, but not instantly. It takes time for the star’s light to reach us here on Azeroth.
For those stars nearest closest to us, like our Sun, it takes their light mere seconds or minutes to reach us. For the farthest, years. Some stars are so far away that their light takes millennia upon millennia to reach Azeroth. And by the time it arrives, the star will be already dead. Every time you look up into the Great Dark Beyond, you see a sky full of ghosts.
The speed of light, often written as the constant c , was measured to be about 299,472,458 meters per second, but no physicist will fault you if you just round up the number to 300,000,000 meters per second.
That’s all well and good, but you may say, ‘300,000,000 meters per second is well outside the range of any sentient being’s perception! It’s pretty much instant! Why do we need to know this?!’ to which I will say: The speed of light is the yardstick of the universe, the standard unit of distance we use when we consider how astronomically far away objects in the Universe are.
The Lantern Experiment
The first attempt to measure if the speed of light was instant was a simple one: Take two lanterns. Give one to your assistant. Distance yourself about a kilometer and a half away from your assistant, perhaps on opposite sides of a chasm or an extremely flat field, and have a stopwatch handy. Uncover your lantern, letting the light become visible for your assistant. Then when your assistant uncovers his lantern, record the time interval. When you know how far the lamps were and you factor in reaction time, you should be able to figure out how fast light is, right?
Unfortunately, it wasn’t that easy. Timepieces at the time of this experiment were only accurate to about a half hour. However, scientists at the time who did use this method ruled that light was extraordinarily fast, if not instantaneous.
So we’re back to square one. We had no idea if light is simply faster than any sentient being’s perception or if it is really instantaneous. It wouldn’t be until after the opening of the Dark Portal and the First, Second, and Third wars that we would have our answer.
The Story of Romor Skywatcher
Romor Skywatcher was a shaman in the Orcish Shadowmoon clan on Draenor. The Shadowmoon were master astronomers. They believed they could tell the future from the movements of the stars. For centuries, they recorded their observations in star charts, but like all Orcish clans, they would be catapulted into the thick of war. Romor survived the bloody First and Second wars, eventually retiring to the new Horde capital of Orgrimmar at the end of the Third War, tired of conflict. In his old age, he continued to record the movements of the stars above Durotar, exploring this new sky.
What Romor was about to discover gave the realm of physics an entirely new understanding. Orbiting a rocky planet he named after his daughter, Grotura, he spotted a tiny moon. This moon he called, ‘Oshu’nag’ or ‘Mountain of the Winds’ due to its highly visible craters caused by asteroid strikes. Over the course of months, he continued to observe Oshu’nag. In his observations, he noted Oshu’nag took precisely 42.5 hours to complete an orbit around Grotura. So if one witnessed Oshu’nag peeking out from Grotura’s side on Midnight at Tuesday, then it should emerge once more at Thursday at half past six.
Romor continued to record data throughout the year. As he did, he noticed something surprising. Depending on the time of year, Oshu’nag would emerge from Grotura earlier than expected or later than expected. What Romor found was that Oshu’nag’s late and early arrivals weren’t due to Grotura. It was due to Azeroth’s orbit around the
(Diagram not to scale)
When Azeroth was closer to Grotura in its orbit, Oshu’nag emerged earlier.
(Diagram not to scale)
When Azeroth was farther from Grotura, Oshu’nag emerged late. Romor had unlocked the missing piece of light:
It wasn't instant.
Romor realized that light takes time to travel; it wasn’t instantaneous. If it were, then Oshu’nag would have emerged from Grotura at the same time every Thursday at half past six no matter what time of the year it was.
So when Azeroth is farther away from Grotura, it takes longer for Oshu’nag’s light to reach us on Azeroth, and therefore, you see Oshu’nag emerge from Grotura later than you would expect! Inversely, when Azeroth is closer to Grotura in its orbit, it takes less time for Oshu’nag’s light to travel here to Azeroth, and we see Oshu’nag appear earlier than expected.
We would later use a combination of mirror reflecting and Gnomish microwave experiments to determine the precise speed of light. It comes out to be about 300,000,000 meters per second or about 9.461 * 10^15 meters per year or 9.5 trillion kilometers per year. We call this unit of distance a Light Year. It’s the standard unit of measurement when we talk about how far apart or how big things are in astronomy.
The speed of light is the unofficial speed limit of the Universe built into the very fabric of space and time itself. But because light is a finite speed, it isn’t just a measurement of distance. It’s also a measurement of time. The further away an object is, the further back in time we see it.
So when we look at the Sun, we don't see the Sun as it is currently. We're seeing the Sun as it was eight minutes ago. The same applies to our moons. When we look at our moons, we don't see the moons as they currently are. We see the moons as they were one second ago.
The sky is our very own time machine.
- What is the speed of light? Can you round it up?
- Why is the speed of light important to us in present day?
- Why was the lantern experiment ineffective?
- How did Romor's Oshu'nag observations confirm light wasn't instantaneous?
- What are the apparent effects of the speed of light as it pertains to our Sun and moons?
Spellbreaking Code of Conduct - Title 8, section 8.2 - Using Force
As a preface to the curriculum, I will lead with a section of law enforcement policy on the use of force as it applies to Spellbreakers. Some of these were inspired by the existing guidelines for Silvermoon Guardsmen while others were constructed exclusively for these sworn mage-guards:
1. Use of Force: When Authorized
A spellbreaker shall only use the force reasonable, necessary, and proportionate, magical or physical, or a combination of the two, to bring a person or incident under control efficiently while protecting the lives of the spellbreaker or others.
Spellbreakers shall only use objectively reasonable force, magical or physical, or a combination of the two, proportional to the threat or urgency of the situation when necessary to achieve an objective. Once the threat has been contained and is safe to stop the force, the force must cease.
Reasonable: The reasonableness of a particular use of force is based on the circumstances known by the spellbreaker at the time and weighs the actions of the spellbreaker against the rights of the one the force will be applied. Factors to consider in determining the amount of force to be used include, but are not limited to:
- The seriousness of the crime or suspected offense;
- The level of magical or physical threat or resistance presented by the subject;
- The power of the spell the subject currently wields;
- The potential for injury a spell may inflict on bystanders or the subject himself;
- Whether the subject poses an immediate danger to other spellbreakers or the community;
- The conduct of the subject being confronted (as reasonably perceived by magical means through analyzing mana level spikes or physical means through the five senses by the spellbreaker at the time);
- The time available for a spellbreaker to make a decision;
- The availability of other resources (reinforcements, anti-magic shackles, nullification runes);
- The training and experience of a spellbreaker;
- The subject's accessibility to required components of dangerous spells (i.e. vocal, hand gestures, material)
- Spellbreaker versus subject factors such as age, size, numbers, relative mana pool, relative strength, physical and magical skill level, injury/exhaustion, physical or mental disabilities, and number of other spellbreakers versus subject(s)
- Other environmental factors (crowds, friendly fire, weather, etc.)
The assessment of reasonable force must allow for the fact that spellbreakers are often forced to make split-second decisions in circumstances that are often tense, uncertain, dangerous, and rapidly evolving about the amount of force necessary for a particular situation.
Necessary: Spellbreakers will use physical and magical force when no reasonably effective alternative appears to exist, and only then to the degree which is proportional to produce a lawful outcome.
Proportional: The level of force must match the amount of resistance the subject is applying and must consider circumstances like those listed earlier in this section. Spellbreakers must rely on training, experience, and assessment of the situation to decide on an appropriate level of force to be applied. The more immediate the threat and the more likely the threat will result in death or serious physical or magical injury, the higher level of force that may be proportional, objectively reasonable, and necessary to counter it.
2. Use of Force: When Prohibited
A spellbreaker may not use physical or magical force:
- To punish a subject
- Against an individual or individuals who only verbally confront the spellbreaker unless the vocalization actively impedes a legitimate law enforcement function
- Against an individual or individuals who only use illusory cantrips to annoy the spellbreaker unless the spell actively impedes a legitimate law enforcement function
- On restrained or disabled subjects (e.g. a subject restrained by magic-nullification cuffs or contained in one's stasis globule or imprisonment cube) except in uncommon circumstances when the subject must be stopped to prevent injury, escape or destruction of property. All force on restrained or disabled subjects will be carefully and critically reviewed for any potential abuse.
- Exception: Subjects who refuse to get out of transports such as imprisonment cubes or stasis globules may be forcibly removed from them after reasonable attempts to gain voluntary compliance have failed.
- To stop a subject from swallowing a dangerous substance or potential piece of evidence in their mouth:
- Spellbreakers may use reasonable force to prevent a suspect from putting something in their mouth.
- If a suspect swallows a harmful substance, a spellbreaker must summon medical assistance through an alarm spell or enlist the aid of a citizen healer.
- To extract a substance or item from inside the body of a suspect without a warrant.
Assessment: As resistance decreases, the level of force may also directly decrease.
3. Use of Deadly Force
Deadly Force, such as the spellbreaker's glaive to cause bodily harm, spells that cause magical or mental damage, and the like may only be used where the threat of death or serious physical or magical injury to the spellbreaker or others is imminent. Danger is imminent when an objectively reasonable spellbreaker would believe that:
- A suspect is acting or threatening to cause death or serious physical or magical injury to the spellbreaker or others, and
- The suspect has the physical or magical means of instrumentalities to do so, and
- The suspect has the opportunity and ability to use the means or instrumentalities to cause death or serious physical injury.
4. Deadly Force may be used to prevent the escape of a fleeing suspect only when an objectively reasonably spellbreaker would believe that it is necessary and there is probable cause that:
- The suspect has committed or is in the process of committing a crime involving the infliction or threatened infliction of grave physical or magical injury or death; and
- The escape of the suspect would pose an imminent danger of death or serious physical injury to the spellbreaker or another person unless the suspect is apprehended without delay; and
- The spellbreaker has given a verbal or visual warning to the suspect, if time, safety, and circumstances permit.
See Section 8.050 - Deadly Force
5. Following the use of force, spellbreakers shall render or request medical aid if needed or if required by anyone as soon as possible.
- The spellbreaker will continue to monitor the suspect(s) taken into custody closely.
- Incapacitated subjects will be placed on their side in a recovery position. Spellbreakers shall not restrain subjects who are in custody and under control in a manner that compromises the subject’s ability to breathe.
6. Spellbreakers shall automatically request medical aid in certain situations:
Every Phoenix-level use-of-force, specifically including, but not limited to:
- Weapon strikes to the head
- Impact of the head against a hard, fixed object
- Use of the glaive to cut, slash, or stab a suspect
- Use of spell sunder to destroy a harmful spell as the subject is casting
- Use of offensive spells such as the mana spike, mana boil, or mana rend techniques
- Use of spell reflection to defend the spellbreaker or bystanders and redirect a destructive spell at its caster
The following less-lethal incidents:
- Shock disruption applications
- Prestidigitation disruption (Excessively bright flashing lights, extreme smells, deafening sounds, etc.)
- Use of mana drain technique
After any use of force on subjects who are reasonably believed or known to be:
- Physically frail
- Physically or mentally impaired
SPB181 Final Exam Review Material
- NOT TO BE DISTRIBUTED OUTSIDE OF THIS CLASS UNLESS IN THE CASE OF UNIVERSITY RECORDKEEPING
Spellbreaking Techniques pt. 1 - Introduction/Disruption
Spellbreaking was made into an art out of necessity. Magic was in every quel’dorei whether one was part of the magister elite or one of the commoners.
Accepting the burden of being a spellbreaker in High Elven society meant you swore to uphold the following:
- The Neutrality of the Magic: With great understanding and temperament, magic is a great boon. Magic is not naturally inclined to good or evil in the same way that a flame has no preference between giving warmth or burning the skin. Magi are judged not by what kind of magic they wield nor study but by how they use their gift.
- The Denial of Mercy to Those Too Far Gone: Those who use magic to hurt others must be utterly annihilated. They have crossed a line of which there is no return. Quel’thalas has no place for one who would use the greatest gift of all to hurt his fellow citizens.
- The Preservation of Magic and Knowledge: Quel’thalas thrives on magic and the increasing magical literacy of the people. The more magic belongs to every citizen, the less chance it can be used for destructive ends. Destroy those who would upset this balance. Preserve and cherish the lives of those magi who use their gift well.
Abide by these three tenets, and one was trusted to police the elite, the middle class, and the squalid. Everyone was equal. We were seen as the immovable force immune to corruption.
There are four main ways to use Spellbreaking when it comes to fighting and protecting as a spellbreaker. Each category is increasingly more drastic in its application. To help remember these categories, spellbreakers just made an acronym: D.R.A.D. or Disruption, Reflection, Absorption, and Destruction in ascending order of urgency.
Keep in mind these techniques, despite being on the lowest rung of the 'urgency' ladder, were, regardless, constructed to either disable or kill before a spell takes effect. It is for this reason that the utmost respect and caution should be shown and exhibited respectively.
Let’s have a look at the first part of the acronym: Disruption.
Spells often require vocal, somatic, and material components to cast. Disruption is, in essence, the act of upsetting these needed ingredients to prevent a spell from ever taking its proper shape and power. Disruption is the first choice a spellbreaker should utilize when it comes to fighting a magic-user.
"Anar'alah belore!" I cannot tell you how many times some inebriated magister shouted these words before unleashing a giant fiery boulder of a Pyroblast. Contrary to popular opinion, a vocal component to, for example, a Pyroblast spell isn't needed, but the user's words do empower it. Fortunately for us, a caster using a vocal component very conveniently announces what he intends to perform.
Anything that can obstruct the airway, mouth, or even hinder speech can readily be employed. A silence spell is an example: displacing the air around a speaker's mouth to completely remove the medium that sound waves must use to make noise, efficiently rendering the subject mute. In especially dire cases, applications of open palm, glaive, or shield strikes directly to the trachea will be very useful, but only in cases where deadly force must be used to produce a lawful outcome.
Should the situation demand, a spellbreaker should not hesitate to dispatch a foe outright with his glaive before or during the subject's casting if there is a reasonable belief that the subject would otherwise kill or cause great physical or magical injury to either the spellbreaker himself or to bystanders if the spell finishes.
Above all, physical disruption does not consume mana, allowing the spellbreaker to conserve his energy throughout the encounter should the subject put up more resistance.
The Eye of Dath'Remar
Should the subject pose an extreme threat, The Eye of Dath’Remar can be used as a last resort. Arcane energy flows into one of the spellbreaker’s eyes for one minute. The user must not blink else the Eye’s effect will be canceled. The eye acts as a focusing lens and projects a cone of concentrated anti-magic energy outward from the pupil. The Eye’s duration can be prolonged through force of will or through external infusion but not without causing extreme damage to the organ itself.
One will know the Eye is in effect if his companion’s eye is glowing with a blue flame. The Eye will effectively silence anyone, including allies, caught in its conical gaze and quite literally neutralizes any other casted spells should they bypass the conical silence. It is for this reason that great care must be considered before its use.
The Eye of Dath’Remar affects:
- Targeted Effects: Spells and other magical effects such as curses that are cast at an intended target will have no effect on the target.
- Areas of Magic: The area of a spell of magical effect, such as a blanket of fire, cannot extend into the spellbreaker’s gaze.
- Spells: Any active spell or other magical effect on a person or object is suppressed within the spellbreaker’s gaze.
- Enchanted Items: The properties of an enchanted item is nullified in the spellbreaker’s gaze. If an enchanted weapon or piece of enchanted ammunition leaves the spellbreaker’s gaze, the enchantment ceases to be suppressed.
- Magical Travel: Teleportation will fail to work within the cone regardless if the spellbreaker’s gaze is the destination or departure point for magical travel. Openings to other locations such as portals temporarily close within the spellbreaker’s gaze.
Whether it be a slow, but massive, eruption of the arms or a gentle flick of the wrist, all spells, one way or another, require some somatic component, and gestures can easily be interrupted. Casters are generally not both martially and magically inclined. The vast majority of them fall short when it comes to close range combat.
Spellbreakers are called 'mage-guards' for a reason. They are useful in both distant and close quarters. While one can most certainly deliver anti-magic shock applications at a distance, extreme prestidigitations can serve you well here. Bright flashes and ear-shattering noises will halt a spellcaster's concentration, if even for a brief moment. This moment is wholly long enough to quickly close the distance and make the caster now fight on your terms.
Consider the following scenario: A caster's first instinct will be to either create more distance or push you away. In the case of the former, the use of the arcane tether technique will cause them to experience an incredible amount of pain should they run. In the case of the latter, physical contact gives you a conduit for you to use the mana rending technique, which explodes the mana inside your foe's body.
In less serious cases, simple grapples and joint lock techniques to force pain compliance can be employed. Pain is an effective tool to actively discourage magical or physical resistance. Should the subject continue to struggle or begin another incantation under your grasp, do not hesitate to break the limb or dislocate the fingers.
However, pain compliance assumes a rational foe, but altered states such as mental illness, drug use, or extreme adrenaline may alter the subject’s perception of pain or willingness to submit.
AST181 Week 1 - Required Reading
The Roots of Astromancy
The history of Azerothian Astromancy, also called Astronomy, goes back at least ten thousand years to the Kaldorei people under the coal-black heavens of Old Kalimdor. With no light pollution, they were crowded with a blanket of brilliant stars. The Kaldorei devised patterns in the sky that centered around the dark patches in the heavens (which we now know to be sooty cosmic clouds poised to form new stars).
Observers in every area of the world later started to systematize the sky, joining up the brilliant dots into constellations that reflected the stories of their mythologies. Ancient constellations like the Kul Tiran Kraken have been with us for some two and a half millennia.
Early astronomers realized that the night sky was not just a beautiful sight, but that it was also a practical tool. One could use the patterns in the sky for timekeeping, as they moved regularly across the sky every night. One could also utilize them in navigation at sea. Cultures such as the High Elves and Kul Tirans both set their sights on the stars to guide their ships in the fierce tides of the ocean.
The heavens became essential for calendar-making: Our ancestors observed that one could see different constellations each month during the year. They also observed the movements of the Sun and our moons. Early civilizations such as the Kaldorei marked the passing of the year by watching the changing position of sunrise and sunset along the horizon (as you can as well).
Other civilizations, such as the Mountain Giants, built vast stone monuments to our local sun, the most famous of which are the Circles of Binding in the Arathi Highlands. Though they serve to imprison a certain dangerous elemental, the monuments are often visited by travellers for the summer solstice, normally on June 21st. When one stands on the inside of the circle, the rising Sun aligns with the outlying “heel stones” to mark the height of summer. But a more recent theory is that the circles are actually monuments dedicated to winter, and that an observer would stand at the heel stone and watch the Sun setting between two sarsen stones on winter’s shortest day. It marked the turning point of the year and the coming of spring.
However, astromancy was still not a science. For this, we would have to wait a little bit longer.
Making Sense of the Heavens
The Kaldorei Empire, more specifically the part of the empire residing around Suramar City, was the first Azerothian civilization to turn astromancy into a science. They observed eclipses of the moons and concluded that these were caused by our companions moving into Azeroth’s shadow. From the curve of the shadow on the moons, they deduced that Azeroth was spherical and about four times larger than our satellite.
Millennia later, a Human polymath by the name of Erathos accurately calculated the circumference of Azeroth by comparing the overhead positions of the midsummer Sun at two different locations in the Eastern Kingdoms.
Far from being abstract philosophers, the Night Elves also invented the first orrery: a complex set of arcane-enchanted gear wheels. It was used to predict the moons’ phases and eclipses. Their astronomers also watched the planets (which we now know to be neighboring worlds) -- “wandering stars” that moved from night to night, and they worked out an early template for our solar system.
The architect of this grand plan was a great Night Elven astronomer: Nar’thalas’ own Centhos Cleargaze. He gathered all the teachings of his predecessors into a great text called: Anas’athar vas Gestiv or The Greatest Arrangement in Common. We will be delving into the text later this semester. Cleargaze was the first person to catalogue the heavens systematically. He listed a little over a thousand stars grouped into 48 constellations. However, The Greatest Arrangement and Cleargaze’s teachings themselves were lost to time until just recently by a mad stroke of luck during the War Against the Legion.
AST181 Week 3/15 - Required Reading
Binoculars, Telescopes, Refractors, and Reflectors, Oh my.
Before you go out and haul a telescope to the least light polluted place you can think of, invest in a good pair of binoculars. This is not just a cut-rate alternative. Most serious astronomers use binoculars as well as their main telescopes. These handy little instruments are ideal for many purposes where you do not need huge magnification. They also show you a wide view of the sky.
You can easily spot Grotura’s moons, as well as the most prominent galaxies. If there is a bright comet around, such as Uther’s Light, binoculars usually provide the best view of the tail.
Moreover, binoculars are lightweight and easy to hold. Unlike a telescope, you do not need a massive mounting to support them. Binoculars are also easier to use because they show the view the right way up, while telescopes show everything upside-down.
It will help if you can support the binoculars, otherwise they will magnify every tiny shake of your hands. Generally, it is good enough to prop them on a fence or just rest your elbows on a table. Alternatively, you could buy a pair of image-stabilized binoculars from your local engineer or even a pair of magnifying goggles that do the same thing. They are expensive, but it is amazing how much more you can see when the stars are not wobbling around.
When Gnomish astronomers planned a large observatory in Darkshore, they had to persuade the local Blackwood Furbolg tribe to allow them access to their sacred lands. The scientists invited the tribal elders to view the Moon through a telescope. The Blackwood elders were so impressed that they immediately granted permission to the “Little Men with Long Eyes.”
Meaning “far-seeing” in Old Common, a telescope really does bring the heavens down to Azeroth. You can swoop over the craters of the Moon, see the rocky wastelands of Grotura, and view distant galaxies. Over the next few pages, we cover the two main kinds of telescopes with their pros and cons.
If you acquire a compact telescope for casual viewing, you can usually just carry it outdoors (but store it in a safe, cool place to avoid it dewing over). If you are serious enough to set up a telescope on a permanent mounting, you will need to protect it with either a roll-off shed or an observatory building with a slit in the roof.
Bigger is Better!
When buying or making a telescope, go for the biggest one you can afford. First, it will allow you to see at a higher magnification. A high magnification on a small telescope will just give you a larger blurred image. This is what astronomers call “empty magnification.” A good rule of thumb is that the maximum magnification you should use is twice the telescope’s diameter in millimeters, so there is no point in “pushing” a 75 mm telescope beyond a magnification of 150 times.
Second, the bigger the telescope, the greater its “light grasp.” A small telescope will reveal nearby planets like Grotura and Scarien, but if you want a good view of much dimmer objects, such as remote galaxies, a large telescope is essential.
Above the Atmosphere
However good your telescope, you always have to look upward through Azeroth's churning atmosphere which makes everything shimmer rather than looking up from the bottom of a pool. That is why professional astronomers now site their telescopes on high mountain peaks above the worst of the air's turbulence.
The traditional telescope, the kind used by sailors and early astronomers, has a large lens at the front end of its tube to gather light and bring it to a focus. A smaller lens (the eye) at the other end magnifies the image. Because the main lens bends, or “refracts,” the light, this type of telescope is called a refractor.
This was the earliest type of telescope. It was invented by optician Vorossa Fandir in Suramar. Perhaps one of the most recognizable telescopes is the refracting telescope situated in the Greymane Manor observatory.
The front lens of the telescope (known as the “objective”) not only focuses the light but also spreads it out into a multi-hued rainbow. This effect is called chromatic aberration. If you look through a very cheap refractor, you will see a star surrounding by a blurry colored fringe.
To make useful observations, astronomers had to develop a refractor in which the objective is made from two lenses, composed of different kinds of glass, stuck together to reduce the color fringing. All large professional refractors are made using this achromatic design.
Later on, astronomers competed to build bigger and bigger refractors, culminating in the giant telescope at the Dazzledawdle Observatory in the Badlands. However, its lens, at 40 inches across, is about as large as you can make a refractor; a bigger lens would crumple under its own weight and would not focus properly. That is why, apart from special telescopes for observing the Sun, astronomers have not constructed a large refractor in the last few years.
A reflecting telescope, or reflector, uses a mirror, instead of a lens, to reflect light to a focus hence the term “reflector.” Unlike refractors, reflectors do not suffer from chromatic aberration. Famed Gnomish Physicist and Mathematician Isaak Gneuten built the first reflector. Gneuten also inserted a second small mirror at an angle to reflect the focused light onto an eyepiece on the side of the telescope.
In the biggest telescopes of the olden times, an astronomer would sit at the focus for cold, uncomfortable hours of observation perhaps even in the telescope itself! Now, some astronomers, especially Gnomish and Goblin ones, make observations using electronic machines. You’ll find them sitting in the warmth of a control room.
A reflector has the great advantage that you can support even the largest mirror from behind to prevent it from sagging under its own weight. That is why all the biggest telescopes today are reflectors. Many have mirrors supported by either magic or machine-controlled actuators, which are small devices that push on the mirrors to keep them exactly the right shape as the telescope tilts.
The Draenic Ekel 1 Telescope pioneered the way to such colossal sizes. It collects light with a set of 36 hexagonal mirrors that fit together precisely like tiles to create a mirror surface larger than you could create from a single piece of glass.
So you have a telescope, and you want to point it at Grotura and find that it is surprisingly tricky. The view through the eyepiece is unexpectedly restricted, so aiming the telescope will be hit-and-miss.
This is when you need a finder. Traditionally, a finder is a small telescope pointing in the same direction as your main one, but with a low magnification and a wide field of view. If you find Grotura in the finder and center it up on the crosswires, you will immediately see it in your main telescope too. Many telescopes now come instead with a red dot finder, which superimposes a red dot in the sky where the telescope is pointing.
With either type, check that it lines up properly with your main telescope by looking at a distant object during the day (when it is much easier to make fine adjustments).
ARMT 303 Field Tactics (Large Scale)
Waging War - Course Material
by Tehiar Bloodhawk
Tehiar Bloodhawk was a High Elven military strategist and general who authored the military text Waging War nearly three-thousand years ago under the reign of Anasterian Sunstrider.
Not much is known about Bloodhawk’s upbringing. Rumors saying that he was a part of the Sunstrider family to the physical manifestation of the Sun itself were said. Today, none of them can be verified, but we still do possess his writings.
Regardless of his upbringing, Bloodhawk is widely hailed as one of the greatest High Elven military commanders. The Trolls called him, ‘Indestructible Red Hawk’ due to the his undefeated record.
Waging War is the culmination of Bloodhawk’s military experience. It was commonly known to be the definitive work on military strategy and tactics of its time. The central premise of the book emphasizes fluidity over rigidness, and you don’t have to be a general nor elf to apply its principles to your own life.
The format of this text will be Tehiar’s own quotes from Waging War bolded. The bolded text is then followed by unbolded annotations below along with any possible examples.
1.1 Tehiar said: The act of waging war is of vital importance to the high kingdom.
War is not just for the generals. It’s an important tool for the kingdom itself to achieve important goals such as defending itself and influencing other kingdoms by shows of strength.
Many leaders get too invested in operational tactics and every single minute detail of his soldiers. Focus on strategy, and the tactics will come as a byproduct.
1.2 It is a matter of life and death, a road to victory or to ruin. Hence, it is a subject of inquiry which cannot be neglected.
War will happen with or without you. If you are not strong, then others will walk over and overrun you. If you wage war unwisely, you will only hurt yourself and the soldiers under your command. Lives are at stake here.
1.3 Waging war is governed by five constant factors.
These should always be taken into account. They are non-negotiable and undeniable. These factors can be applied to anywhere -- both in the military battle and life’s own battlefield:
1.4 (1) Morality; (2) Skies; (3) Earth; (4) The Commander; (5) Method and Discipline;
1.5, 1.6 MORALITY causes the soldiers to trust and follow their general;
People must believe in the causes for going to war. An army’s trust in their commander will cause the soldiers to follow him regardless of any danger. To go to war without the proper moral backing runs the chance of the war losing steam and morale plummeting.
1.7 SKIES represent opposing pairs.
Illumination and darkness, warmth and cold--seeing and understanding contrasts gives you an advantage. Understand the impact of high and low ground or fighting in the summer versus winter or even fighting on a full versus empty stomach. Know that when one is doing well, doing badly is never far away. Never be trapped by tunnel vision or arrogance.
1.8 EARTH represents the physical aspects of a battle: height, terrain, distance, and the weather.
Seek to understand how physical aspects of your battleground can and will affect the outcome of your battle. Ignoring your surroundings will lead to your defeat.
In the Battle of Thunder Pass in the Draenor Campaign, the Frostwolf Orcs were outnumbered by the Thunderlord clan nearly six to one in a narrow canyon. Drek’Thar, Far Seer of the Frostwolf clan, began to call on the winds to collapse the canyon, but he needed more time. Ga’nar, brother to the Frostwolf chieftain Durotan, charged forward to delay the encroaching Thunderlords.
The delay was enough for Drek’Thar to call down a lightning strike, causing the canyon to buckle and crush the incoming Thunderlords, resulting in a Frostwolf victory with minimal losses all by using the canyon itself.
1.9 The COMMANDER stands for the virtues of: Wisdom, sincerity, benevolence, courage, and strictness.
How you lead dictates how people will follow. How you lead depends on who are, your beliefs, values, and models. Wisdom is knowing the right thing to do. Sincerity is belief in your orders. Benevolence is helping those you could harm and avoiding unnecessary cruelty. Courage is not the absence of fear but the ability to press forward in the presence of fear. Strictness is ensuring others do as they should. A commander who possess these values will lead his kingdom to glory. A commander who lacks these will instead do irreparable damage.
Garrosh Hellscream was an excellent fighter but poor leader. He let emotions get the better of him and often sought to engage Alliance forces regardless of any advantage or disadvantage.
He did not care for winning, instead he cared for total annihilation of Alliance forces and the supremacy of the Orcish race. He did not have wisdom, but he had sincerity. He did not have benevolence, but he had courage. And without saying, he had strictness in spades.
As a result, the culmination of Garrosh’s actions was the Siege of Orgrimmar, leading to his capture and the overall weakening of the Horde faction itself.
1.10 By METHODS AND DISCIPLINE, understand the separation of the army into its proper subdivisions:
Ranks among the officers, the maintenance of roads and logistics for supplies, and the control of military expenditure. When one has a vast number of troops, it’s extremely important that each knows where they should be and what they should be doing. Hierarchical organization is a power way of achieving this.
Armies travel far from home and require rapid movement of supplies and communication. Wars are won by much more than fighting.
Sloppy organization is the downfall of an otherwise skilled fighting force. Keep clear roles and clear expectations wherever you are. Avoid ambiguity in your commands, lest they be miscommunicated.
1.11 These five factors: Morality, Skies, Earth, The Commander, and Method and Discipline should be familiar to every general. Those who knows these factors will succeed. Those who don’t will fail.
Groups thrive and die based on what their leadership truly understands or misunderstands. It is sharpened into a deadly spear point if the commander is capable and is blunted into a toy if the commander is inept.
1.12 Therefore, when seeking to determine military conditions, let them be made by these five factors:
Take time to understand what you understand and think deeply about simple things. Predict what your opponent may do and act based on this understanding.
1.13 (1) Which of the two generals is imbued with morality? (2) Which of the two generals has the most ability? (3) Which of the two has the advantages derived from the Skies and Earth? (4) On which side is discipline most rigorously enforced? (5) Which army is stronger? (6) On which side are the officers and men more highly trained? (7) In which army is there the greater consistency both in reward and punishment?
This excerpt uses the five constant factors to compare yourself and your opponent to the same standard. If one of you has a better understanding in any of these, then this will bestow a huge advantage. If one has a weakness in just one area, then this is where an attack will be the most successful.
Morality and decency start from the very top and trickles down. What the leader does, others will copy. There is a very fine line between a Garrosh and an Uther.
War is not won by flowery words and knights in shining armor but by cunning and command. The true worth of leaders will not be discovered in peace time but in trials by fire.
Understanding the opposites and physical aspects of a battle is crucial. Beware of an enemy who has the advantage in either.
Discipline is the foundation of an army. Even with the best strategy, without discipline, an army will fail every time. Build and sustain discipline in your troops from day one.
When two armies are pitted against one another on an flat plain, the stronger one will win. If you are weaker, avoid a direct fight and seek to remove the advantages of your opponent. If you are stronger, seek to capitalize on your advantages and force a direct fight.
Discipline along with cunning and tactics comes from constant training. If your enemy learns faster than you, you are in trouble.
Discipline is only effective if it is consistently applied. Values of the leaders are only shown if they are consistently displayed. Troops are clearly motivated when they know the consequences that follow an action.
1.14 By means of these seven considerations, I can tell if one will be victorious or crushed.
1.15 The general that heeds my counsel and acts on it will be successful. Let one who does so be cherished by his king. The general that ignores my counsel will suffer defeat. Expel him from the kingdom!
Read, understand, and apply Bloodhawk’s teachings. Don’t reject it because it seems too simple, it’s from an elf, too complex, or too old. If you think this, question your own understanding.
1.16 While heeding my counsel, be aware of any other helpful counsel over and beyond this text.
And even then, Bloodhawk’s teachings are not everything. Seek, study, and learn from elsewhere and anyone you can. Nobody has absolute knowledge, yet everyone can contribute.<p dir="ltr" style="background-color: transparent; color: #000000; font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 22.08px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 48px
(Continued from previous post due to character limits)
1.17 One should modify one’s tactics according to the circumstances that are favorable.
Do not blindly follow advice. A tactic that works against a specific opponent may be countered by another. Understand how and why the pieces fall into the puzzle.
1.18 All warfare is based on deception.
From the hiding of one’s troops to in a dense forest to the feints in a duel, deception appears in all levels. Seek to shroud your intent and power from your opponent.
1.19 Hence, when we are able to attack, we must seem unable. When using our forces, we must seem inactive. When we are nearby, we must make the opponent think that we are far away.
All races of Azeroth are naturally deceptive. It has also made us cautious and good at detecting deception. This can be exploited. One of Tehiar’s most famous strategies was ‘Fake Messenger.’
He prized, not vilified, elves who could speak the Amani tongue. Tehiar would use his mages to disguise these elves and send them into the heart of Amani camps. Here, the disguised elves would act as Amani messengers who had an urgent message for the enemy commander.
Once inside, they would spring from their disguise and assassinate the Amani commander who the message was meant for.
This way, Amani commanders were distrustful of messages, doubting their own forces, or units numbering in the thousands would crumble without a leader in the dead of night and weaken due to infighting over who would be the next commander.
1.20 Hold out baits to entice the enemy. Feign disorder, and crush him.
When an enemy is overeager of affected deeply by emotions, he can easily be exploited. Tehiar was not only a great military field commander, he was practically unmatched in unconventional warfare.
He used the Amani’s seething hatred for Quel’dorei against themselves. He would place vulnerable-looking supply wagons on the roads. In reality, the ‘supply officers’ were veteran Farstrider rangers, and the goods on the wagon were explosives and metal bits.
When the Amani pounced Tehiar’s wagons, the explosives would be lit and the elves would retreat away from the blast, leaving the trolls to be showered in a hail of hot glass and shrapnel. The rangers then would throw off their disguises and mop up what Amani survivors remained.
1.21 If he is secure at all points, be prepared for him. If he is in superior strength, evade him.
When you can find no way through a strong defense, keep reconnaissance trained on your enemy. An opening may appear if you simply keep your eyes open. If the enemy forces are significantly more in number or are stronger, shy away from a direct confrontation. Employ unconventional tactics such as hit-and-run, camouflage, sabotage, and assassination.
1.22 If your opponent is easily angered, seek to irritate him. Pretend to be weak and taunt him out of his advantage.
When one is angry, he thinks far less and falls for simple tactics. An angry commander will, in the heat of the moment, throw away swathes of troops into a trap. Seek to exploit the enemy commander’s disposition and punish him.
1.23 If he is resting, interrupt him. If his forces are united, divide them.
Every living race on Azeroth needs rest. Even standing watch and being ready to defend is draining, let alone how exhausting fighting in a battle can be. One way to weaken your enemy, especially when you are fewer in number, is to constantly harass him.
Random attacks create uncertainty and prevents your enemy from relaxing. In this way, a small and nimble army can topple a larger army.
Concentrated forces are very difficult to defeat. Instead, aim to break apart armies. If one can isolate his enemy, he removes his opponent’s ability to reinforce. This way, a small victory can provide you a powerful gain. Divide and conquer.
1.24 Attack him where is unprepared. Appear where you are unexpected.
Do not attack where the enemy holds an advantage such as in number or in heightened ground. Instead, attack where his weaknesses are. If he fields a large number of infantry, send out the cavalry. If he fields siege weapons, enlist saboteurs.
Use surprise to keep the enemy in a disoriented state and uncertainty.
1.25 These military plans that lead to victory must not be revealed before the plan is executed.
Deception only works when your opponent does not realize he is being deceived. Secrecy is needed, maybe even deception about your deception.
1.26 The general who wins a battle makes many calculations in his head before the battle is fought. The general who loses makes only a few calculation or none at all. Thinking leads to victory, and hasty action leads to defeat. It is by this point that I can see who is likely to win or lose.
Battles are often won or lost before the first footsoldier steps onto the field. If you are prepared and predict the possible actions of your opponent, then you will avoid the surprise of being outplayed.
In planning, knowledge of the other side is crucial. This is why in every military force there is a branch dedicated to reconnaissance: SI:7, Shattered Hand, even the Deathstalkers. Knowing your opponent’s strength, intent, position, armaments, and so on helps you make better calculations, although you must always be ready for a surprise.
Of course, the main plan almost never survives the battle itself. When your opponent acts, you must respond. Yet, even plans that are never implemented have their value in readying yourself.
Plans are nothing, but planning is everything.
ARMT 303 Field Tactics (Large Scale)
Waging War Ch. 2 - Course Material for Prof. Matthias Crowelley's use.
Chapter 2 - Waging War
2.1 In the operations of war, where there are armies of heavily-clad soldiers, war beasts such as horses and hawkstriders, and food to feed thousands of troops, the spending at the kingdom itself, including the wages of craftsmen for armor, food, maintenance, stablemasters, and so on will reach well over hundreds of thousands of gold. Such is the cost of raising an army.
War is expensive. Apart from costing lives, it costs extreme amounts of coin to sustain an army.
One may be able to borrow money or use the resources of the land, but one will always have to pay for the war whether it be in coin or blood. Many kingdoms have been ruined by aggressive leaders. Wise leaders chooses his battles carefully.
Always consider the cost of your war before you strike the first blow.
After the First War, the Stonemasons were enlisted to help rebuild Stormwind City. Upon completing the reconstruction, Edwin VanCleef, head of the Stonemasons Guild and also the future leader of the Defias Brotherhood, met with the nobles who oversaw the reconstruction efforts for his due.
The nobles claimed that VanCleef had asked more than was originally stated, while the Stonemasons say that the nobles refused to pay them. Regardless, public records from the SI:7 states that the Stormwind nobles racked up a huge debt by expanding the kingdom’s military from Elwynn southward to Stranglethorn. The debt crippled the economy, and the effects from the Defias Brotherhood can still be felt even today in Westfall.
2.2 When you engage in actual fighting, if the fighting is prolonged, then your troops’ weapons will dull and their morale will wane. If you lay siege to a fort, you will exhaust your strength.
Battles should be as short as possible. Soldiers are not machines or made out of magic. They need breaks and rest. Soldiers can only fight in extreme situations in short bursts.
Prolonged campaigns will wear them out. Sieges should be avoided because of the strain it takes on both the troops, their supplies, and the time.
2.3 If the campaign is long, the resources and manpower produced by the state will eventually not be enough to sustain the war.
When war is declared, it’s not only the soldiers who are affected. Families are affected: Mothers, daughters, sons, fathers, uncles, and so on. The soldiers will fret about their loved ones, and their loved ones will, more often than not, have to work to sustain the war effort.
The treasury of the state will also deplete under the costs of supplies, wages, weapons, armor, food, and training.
Do not seek a test of endurance between your state’s coin and the war itself. The war will always win in the end.
2.4 Now, when your weapons have dulled, your morale dampened, your strength exhausted, and your gold spent, other leaders will spring up to take advantage of your weakened state. Then no one, however wise, will be able to prevent the consequences that ensue.
When your army is exhausted, your weapons damaged, and your supplies gone, you are in a terrible strategic position and an enemy can easily swoop in and finish you off. These situations should be seen long before they happen and be prevented.
In reverse, if you catch your enemy when he is exhausted, you can swoop in and snatch victory with minimal losses.
2.5 Thus, though we have heard of stupid quickness in war, cleverness has never been associated with long delays.
Delaying, on the flip side, also can cost you. You will always need time to think and prepare, but delaying too much will cause unnecessary strain on your resources. If you delay, you give space for your opponent to take the initiative.
2.6 There is no instance of a kingdom having benefited from prolonged warfare.
Look at any empire on Azeroth: The Night Elves, the Trolls, the Orcs, none of these factions benefit from a long war. Even the Forsaken spend supplies just like anyone else: Weapons, ammunition, armor, and so on. Prolonged battle is the worst way to fight. A war of attrition is expensive, and its costs will be felt long after the war is over.
Always seek to use cunning and strategy to win quickly and minimize the strain on your resources.
2.7 It is only one who is thoroughly acquainted with the evils of war that can make a way of benefiting from it.
It is possible to profit from a war at the cost of morality. Pirates and bandits are a prime example of this. Being evil in this case means taking pleasure in harming others. Beware those who fight for their own pleasure and benefit rather than for the love of their country and colleagues.
2.8 The skilled general does not impose unnecessary taxes nor does he load his supply wagons more than twice.
Exorbitant taxes in the kingdom to pay for war are never popular. They decrease morale heavily and strains the people. A strong army does not dawdle around needlessly for reinforcements if they can acquire victory themselves. It uses surprise and tactics to quickly achieve victory and gain momentum.
2.9 Bring supplies with you from home, but thrive on the enemy’s supplies. This way, the army will have enough food without straining the kingdom.
It’s always better to use weapons, armor, and magic familiar to you, but for food and other supplies, it’s better to steal these from the enemy to sustain yourself.
Tehiar never used poison or fire against Amani buildings, instead he saw these buildings as gold mines: Dried meats, vegetables, blankets, cloth, tools, fruits, seeds, and so on were much too valuable to be lost in an attack.
2.10 A poor kingdom causes an army to be maintained by contributions from a distance. Maintaining an army at a distance causes the people to become poor.
If the state does not have the funds to maintain an army, then the state must employ other means such as taxing the people and donations. Both are terrible ways to maintain an army as it weakens morale.
2.11 If an army is close, then prices will go up, and high prices cause the people to go poor.
If the army needs a certain good, the additional demand on the limited resource will cause the price of the resource to spike. When the army buys these provisions and hikes the prices up, those who normally buy the provisions cannot afford the new prices. Due to this, the people may grow to dislike the army.
During the Troll Wars, salt was a prized commodity for warding off Amani hexes, and the Quel’thalas military bought salt in bulk. Due to this, the prices of salt grew from only a silver and a half per ounce to nearly a gold per ounce, and Silvermoon’s populace could not afford the change.
Soon, the populace without salt could not preserve meats such as lynx, hawkstrider, dragonhawk, and fish, damaging the butchery market and causing citizens to starve.
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(cont'd from previous post due to character limit)
2.12 When the state’s funds and supplies are exhausted, the people will be affected by heavy taxes.
Those with the least often suffer the most when it comes to wartime.
2.13, 2.14 With the loss of supplies and the exhaustion of the army's strength, the homes of the people will be stripped bare, and three-tenths of their income will be taxed. State expenses such as hawkstriders, horses, armor, bows and arrows, swords and shields, and heavy wagons will amount to four-tenths of its total revenue.
Estimate how much your war will cost and avoid taxing the people and government. Fight battle you can afford either through your own coffers or through your enemy's coffers. How much is it now for you?
Understand the wider costs and quantify whatever you can.
2.15 Due to this, a wise general makes it a priority to sustain himself off of the enemy. One cartload of the enemy’s provisions is worth twenty of one’s own.
2.16 Now, in order to defeat the enemy, the army must be roused.
Anger is a tool in a general’s arsenal. It alters a soldier’s state of mind. Adrenaline takes over. The fight-or-flight instinct kicks in. Fear is forgotten, and pain is dulled. Rouse your army with the atrocities of the enemy, and they will fight harder than they would otherwise.
The desire for justice as a result of betrayal or the violation of sacred values will spur on an army into a righteous fervor.
The seething hatred for Quel’dorei is what made the Amani a fearsome opponent. Silvermoon, according to the Amani, was constructed on sacred Troll grounds. Their berserkers fought without fear, shrugging off wounds such as dismemberment, spears through their bellies, and even, in very rare cases of the loa blessing them, decapitation.
2.17 Therefore, when the enemy is defeated, the spoils of war should be rewarded to those who had a significant impact on the battlefield. Their swords will be added to our arsenal, and their beasts will be treated well in our stables. The captured soldiers will be treated kindly.
Position the spoils of war as a just reward for defeating the enemy, an appreciated bonus for those who shed their blood for victory. But be wary of motivating your soldiers solely on trinkets and baubles.
Enemy armaments such as weapons and ammunition should be added to your army’s supplies.
Even POWs, Prisoners of War, should be treated kindly. Soldiers who are captured and abused will hate you forever. Their families too will harbor a seething hatred for your forces. Treat them well, and deserters may find your faction appealing and may be willing to share information. The possibilities of peace and cease-fires may also hinge on how you treat their own.
Zul’jin, chieftain of the Amani tribe, once had captured future Blood Elven leader, Regent Lord Lor’themar Theron. Instead of executing his enemy on the spot or treating Lor’themar well, Zul’jin instead horrifically tortured the elf. He painted his tusks and face with man’s blood. Lor’themar Theron along with the other captives such as future Blood Knight Matriarch Lady Liadrin and future betrayer Dar’khan Drathir would never forget this abuse.
During the Second War, Zul’jin would find that the tables had turned. Halduron Brightwing, future Ranger-General of Silvermoon, had captured the chieftain. Here, Halduron remembered Zul’jin’s atrocities against his close friend, Lor’themar. Halduron ordered the torture of the troll and had one of Zul’jin’s eyes gouged out.
Zul’jin’s actions had come back to bite him. If he had treated Lor’themar well in his care, perhaps things may have gone a bit differently.
2.18 Use your conquered opponent to augment your own strength.
2.19 In war, your objective is to win, not to fight in lengthy campaigns.
I see this all the time in new commanders or squad leaders who think that the prerequisite of winning is wiping the enemy off the map and killing all their armies and civilians off.
The goal of a war is to win. It’s not to exterminate. It’s not to achieve land. It’s to win. Defeat the enemy in as little time as possible.
2.20, 2.21 Thus, the leader of an army changes the fates of those who follow him. The commander is the one who a kingdom will depend on whether he leads it to prosperity or destruction. Killing for the sake of killing--Conquest for the sake of conquest--There is no honor in these things. There is only regret.
How you lead always dictates how and if others will follow. The actions of you at the head of an army will build reputation whether it be a good or bad one. The ideal reputation is one of justice, never seeking battle for bloodshed. When people think you are a fair leader, they may fear or trust you, and respect is a powerful tool.